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Iraqi Regime
After collapsing Ottoman empire " the latest ruler of Islamic empire" in World War One, Britain and France took control of the collapsed regions of the empire in the middle east and north Africa. New maps were drawn according to their interests regardless of nationalities. In that process newly created states were established; such as Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, Jordan...etc.
With the evolvement of new Turkish government and more interests of British mandated states, Kurdistan was divided into three parts and put under the control of new rulers in Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. The east Kurdistan under Iran's occupation was already seized by King of Persia in a previous war with Ottoman rulers. Here are some dates recorded on Iraq's history since World War One.
1918 : Britain established Kingdom of Iraq and installed Faesal as a king
1922 : Britain and France annexed the entire northern Kurdistan to the newly created Turkey.
1958 : July 14, Abdul Karim Kasim, an Iraqi army general, headed a military coup and removed the last King of Iraq.
1959 : The Kurdish leader, Mulla Mustafa Barzani was brought back by Iraqi president from his thirteen years exile in the Soviet Union as a hope to lead the Kurdish nation in an autonomous Kurdistan.
1961 : The new government of Iraq did not agree with Kurdish demands for their nationality rights. As a result, for the first time, the Kurdish national revolution started in the entire Iraqi occupied Kurdistan against central regime in Baghdad.
1963 : February 8, the nationalist Arab Baath Party, assassinated the Iraqi president Abdul Karim Kasim by a military general, Abdul Salam Arif.
1967 : Abdul Rahman Arif , took over presidency after his brother's death in a military Airplane accident.
1968 : July 17, the leftist leaders of the Baath Party removed Abdul Rahman Arif in a bloodless coup by Ahmad Hassan al Bakir, an Iraqi army general and his top political figure Saddam Hussein who became Iraqi vice president.
1970 : March 11, the new Baath Party's regime, in order to establish themselves without having battles with Kurdish guerillas gave Autonomy rights to the Kurds in Iraq and declared that all the Kurdish demands had to be accomplished within four years.
1970-1974 : Kurdish people for the first time had gained some rights such as; studying in Kurdish language at schools up to twelve grade. A Kurdish television channel was designated for Kurds. In the meantime, Iraqi regime had attempted several times to assassinate Kurdish officials and their leader Mustafa Barzani.
1972 : June 6, Iraqi regime nationalized all the foreign owned oil companies. The Iraqi revenues had strengthened the economy more than ten folds.
1974 : Iraqi regime did not agree with the Kurdish demands to give them all their autonomous rights. The most important disagreements the Kurdish cities of Kirkuk and Kanaqeen that have oil fields and refineries. Another Kurdish demand was not to have Iraqi military or officials be in Kurdistan to dictate people's affairs.
1974-1975 : Kurds had started armed revolt against Iraqi regime with direct support of Shah of Iran and indirect help from the United States. More than fifty thousands Iraqi troops were killed. As a result, Iraqi regime had become very weak.
1975 March 16, Iraq and Iran had made an agreement in Algier during the OPEC meeting that Iran had to stop supporting Kurdish freedom fighters or ( Peshmarga ). In return, Iraq would give half of the Shatt al Arab waterway and some border areas back to Iran that were in disputes between the two countries since 1937.
1975 March 17, Kurdish revolt was collapsed and Kurdish cause was sold for exchange of interests between the two occupiers of Kurdistan. More than hundred thousands Kurdish guerillas dropped their weapons. The border access to Iran was closed to Kurds. Iraqi regime had deported many of returned guerillas to south Iraq in Arab cities and started a campaign to suppress Kurds harshly.
1976 Self-exiled Kurdish leaders had returned back to mountainous areas in Kurdistan from abroad and started organizing political movements in order to begin a new armed revolt against Iraqi regime.
1979 : February 22, Khomeni toppled Shah (King) of Iran and established an Islamic regime. The uprising and revolution against Shah mainly started in Tehran and Kurdish cities. Kurds were hoping to gain their rights and freedom after Shah's ouster, but Khomeni had crashed Kurdish peaceful movement and killed hundreds of Kurds.
1979 Saddam's regime captured more than eight thousands Barzani civilians, old and young, in Barzan region in Kurdistan, destroyed their villages in retaliation that the Kurdish leader is from that region. Their whereabouts of those Barzanis are still unknown.
1975-1980 Iraqi regime had depopulated and deported all the Kurds who were living twenty Kilometers deep along the borders of Iran,Turkey, and Syria. Then started to demolish and destroy their villages and small towns.
1979 : Saddam Hussein officially had became Iraq's president. Practically, he was in full charge in previous years from 1968 of running the Iraqi regime, only symbolically he was acting as vice president.
1980 September 22, Iraqi fighter planes bombarded and attacked military, economic installations, and airports of twenty cities in Iran. The war with Iran had started. Iraq's excuse was that the new Iran's regime was interfering with Iraq's affairs. Saddam abolished the Algier's agreement which was signed with Shah of Iran in 1975.
1980-1988 : For eight years Iraq and Iran were continuously at war and attacking each other's country. More than one million soldiers from both sides were killed. They destroyed each other's country. Both countries used up all their military resources and revenues for fueling their nonsense war. There were battles that in a one day attack more than twenty thousand soldiers got killed. On many occasions both sides had brought the battles into Kurdistan which caused killing thousands of Kurds and destroying their country.
Moreover, Saddam's dirty campaign started in 1984 who tried to eliminate the entire Kurdish population. Within two years, Saddam captured more than two hundred thousands civilian Kurds and they vanished forever. So far their whereabouts are still unknown.
1988 March 16, Saddan attacked the Kurdish city of Halabja with chemical and nerve gas bombs which killed more than five thousands innocent Kurds.
1988 September, Iraq-Iran war was ended after eight long years. Then, Saddam for the second time attacked Kurds in Bahdinan region with chemical bombs. Most of the people fled toTurkey
1990 August 2, Iraqi regime headed by barbarian Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait.
1991 January 15, U.S-led allied military coalitions had started "The Desert Storm" military counterattacks against Saddam's invading forces in Kuwait.
1991 February 28 Iraqi Army was forced out of Kuwait and defeated completely. Kuwait was liberated.
1991 March - April Kurds in the north and Arabs in the south of Iraq had upraised against the weak Iraqi regime, but unfortunately allied negotiators during ceasefire meetings in Safuan had allowed Iraqi regime to use helicopters to crash the people who stood against the regime. They were encouraged to do so by western countries ,(specifically the US president George Bush) that removed Saddam's forces from Kuwait. Thousands of people were killed just three weeks after Iraq's defeat in Kuwait. And the entire world were watching Saddam's killing machines. What a double standard international policy was that.?!!
1991 UN imposed sanction on Iraq for eliminating mass destruction weapons. Safe-haven for Kurds in the north and 32 and 36 no-fly zones were put into work
1996 August 30, Iraqi army marched back to UN safe-haven no-fly zone and destroyed the Kurdistan region's established parliament. Moreover Saddam's army killed wherever Iraqi opposition group's were based in Arbil.
1998 November, Iraqi regime had expelled all the UN weapons inspectors who were monitoring Iraq's compliance with the UN resolutions.
2002 United States and UN have been fed up with continuos broken promises with Iraqi regime and its complete violations of human rights. It is about time for the entire world to realize that dictators and barbarisms such as Saddam's regime must not be exited on this planet. This regime is long over due to be removed.
Defeated Iraqi army were killed by U.S.-led allied warplanes on their way back from Kuwait during the last three hours of the war before the ceasefire had to take effect. The highway was dubbed the Highway of Death